# Model Building Functions¶

## Model Building¶

m = GEKKO(remote=True, [server], [name]):

Creates a GEKKO model m.

If remote is True, the problem is sent to self.server to be solved. If False, GEKKO looks for local binaries of APMonitor.

c = m.Const(value, [name]):
p = m.Param([value], [name])
v = m.Var([value], [lb], [ub], [integer], [name])
m = m.MV([value], [lb], [ub], [integer], [name])
f = m.FV([value], [lb], [ub], [integer], [name])
s = m.SV([value] [lb], [ub], [integer], [name])
c = m.CV([value] [lb], [ub], [integer], [name])
i = m.Intermediate(equation, [name])
eq = m.Equation(equation)

Add a constraint equation built from GEKKO Parameters, Variables and Intermediates, and python scalars. Valid operators include python math and comparisons (+,-,*,/,**,==,<,>). Available functions are listed below in Equation Functions.

[eqs] = m.Equations(equations)

Accepts a list or array of equations.

classmethod m.Obj(obj)

The problem objective to minimize. If multiple objective are provided, they are summed.

m.time

Sets the time array indicating the discrete elements of time discretization for dynamic modes (IMODE > 3). Accepts a python list of a numpy array.

classmethod dt()

Ordinary differential equations are specified by differentiation a variable with the dt() method. For example, velocity v is the derivative of position x:

m.Equation( v == x.dt() )


Discretization is determined by the model time attribute. For example, m.time = [0,1,2,3] will discretize all equations and variable at the 4 points specified. Only ordinary differential equations discretized by time are available internally. Other discretization must be performed manually.

a = m.Array(type,dimension,**args)
Create an n-dimensional array (as defined in tuple input dimension ) of GEKKO variables of type type .

The optional keyword arguments (**args) are applied to each element of the array. The following example demonstrates the use of a 3x2 Array, a Parameter, Intermediates, and an Objective. The array values are initialized to 2.0 and bounds are set to -10.0 to 10.0.:

from gekko import GEKKO
m = GEKKO()
# variable array dimension
n = 3 # rows
p = 2 # columns
# create array
x = m.Array(m.Var,(n,p))
for i in range(n):
for j in range(p):
x[i,j].value = 2.0
x[i,j].lower = -10.0
x[i,j].upper = 10.0
# create parameter
y = m.Param(value = 1.0)
# sum columns
z = [None]*p
for j in range(p):
z[j] = m.Intermediate(sum([x[i,j] for i in range(n)]))
# objective
m.Obj(sum([z[j]**2 + y for j in range(p)]))
# minimize objective
m.solve()
print(x)

classmethod m.solve(disp=True, debug=False)

Solve the optimization problem.

This function has these substeps:

• Validates the model and write .apm file
• Validate and write .csv file
• Write options to .dbs file
• Solve the problem using apm.exe
• Load results into python variables.

If disp is True, APM and solve output are printed.

If debug is True, variable names are checked for problems, tuning parameters are checked for common errors, and user-defined input options are compared against options used by APM. This is useful in debugging strange results.

If GUI is True, the results of this solve are sent to the GUI. If the GUI is not open yet, the GUI object is created, the server is spawned and the browser client is launched.

classmethod m.Connection(var1, var2, pos1=None, pos2=None, node1='end', node2='end')

var1 must be a GEKKO variable, but var2 can be a static value. If pos1 or pos2 is not None, the associated var must be a GEKKO variable and the position is the (0-indexed) time-discretized index of the variable.

Connections are processed after the parameters and variables are parsed, but before the initialization of the values. Connections are the merging of two variables or connecting specific nodes of a discretized variable. Once the variable is connected to another, the variable is only listed as an alias. Any other references to the connected value are referred to the principal variable (var1). The alias variable (var2) can be referenced in other parts of the model, but will not appear in the solution files.

classmethod m.fix(var, pos, val)

This function facilitates the Connection function when var2 is a static value (val).

m.solver_options

A list of strings to pass to the solver; one string for each option name and value. For example:

m = GEKKO()
m.solver_options = ['max_iter 100','max_cpu_time 100']


## Equation Functions¶

Special function besides algebraic operators are available through GEKKO functions. These must be used (not numpy or other equivalent functions):

classmethod m.sin(other)
classmethod m.cos(other)
classmethod m.tan(other)
classmethod m.asin(other)
classmethod m.acos(other)
classmethod m.atan(other)
classmethod m.sinh(other)
classmethod m.mcosh(other)
classmethod m.tanh(other)
classmethod m.exp(other)
classmethod m.log(other)
classmethod m.log10(other)
classmethod m.sqrt(other)

## Logical Functions¶

Traditional logical expressions such as if statements cannot be used in gradient based optimization because they create discontinuities in the problem derivatives. The logical expressions built into Gekko provide a workaround by either using MPCC formulations (Type 2), or by introducing integer variables (Type 3). Please note that these functions are experimental, and may cause your solution to fail. Additionally, all Type 3 functions require a mixed integer solver such as APOPT (SOLVER=1) to solve, and Gekko will change the solver to APOPT automatically if these functions are found in a model.

y = if3(self,condition,x1,x2)
IF conditional with a binary switch variable.

The traditional method for IF statements is not continuously differentiable and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.if3(condition,x1,x2)

Inputs:
condition: GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression x1 and x2: GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable y = x1 when condition<0 y = x2 when condition>=0
y = max2(self,x1,x2)
Generates the maximum value with continuous first and second derivatives.

The traditional method for max value (max) is not continuously differentiable and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.max2(x1,x2)

Input:
GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable
y = max3(self,x1,x2)
Generates the maximum value with a binary switch variable.

The traditional method for max value (max) is not continuously differentiable and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.max3(x1,x2)

Input:
GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable
y = min2(self,x1,x2)
Generates the minimum value with continuous first and second derivatives.

The traditional method for min value (min) is not continuously differentiable and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.min2(x1,x2)

Input:
GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable
y = min3(self,x1,x2)
Generates the maximum value with a binary switch variable.

The traditional method for max value (max) is not continuously differentiable and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.max3(x1,x2)

Input:
GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable
y = sign2(self,x)
Generates the sign of an argument with MPCC.

The traditional method for signum (sign) is not continuously differentiable and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.sign2(x)

Input:
GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable
y = sign3(self,x)
Generates the sign of an argument with binary switching variable.

The traditional method for signum (sign) is not continuously differentiable and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.sign3(x)

Input:
GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable
y = abs2(self,x)
Generates the absolute value with continuous first and second derivatives.

The traditional method for absolute value (abs) has a point that is not continuously differentiable at an argument value of zero and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.abs2(x)

Input:
GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable
y = abs3(self,x)
Generates the absolute value with a binary switch.

The traditional method for absolute value (abs) has a point that is not continuously differentiable at an argument value of zero and can cause a gradient-based optimizer to fail to converge.:

Usage: y = m.abs3(x)

Input:
GEKKO variable, parameter, or expression
Output:
GEKKO variable
classmethod pwl(self, x, y, x_data, y_data, bound_x=False)
Generate a 1d piecewise linear function with continuous derivatives from vectors of x and y data that link to GEKKO variables x and y with a constraint that y=f(x) with piecewise linear units.
Inputs:
• x: GEKKO parameter or variable
• y: GEKKO variable
• x_data: array of x data
• y_data: array of y data that matches x_data size
• bound_x: boolean to state if x should be bounded at the upper and lower bounds of x_data to avoid extrapolation error of the piecewise linear region.

Output: none

## Pre-built Objects¶

x,y,u = state_space(A,B,C,D=None,discrete=False,dense=False)

For State Space models, input SS matricies A,B,C, and optionally D. Returns a GEKKO array of states (SV) x, array of outputs (CV) y and array of inputs (MV) u. A,B,C and D must be 2-dimensional matricies of the appropriate size.

The discrete Boolean parameter indicates a discrete-time model, which requires constant time steps and 2 NODES. The dense Boolean parameter indicates if A,B,C,D should be written as dense or sparse matrices. Sparse matricies will be faster unless it is known that the matricies are very dense.

y,u = arx(self,p)

Build a GEKKO model from ARX representation. Inputs:

• parameter dictionary p[‘a’], p[‘b’], p[‘c’]
• a (coefficients for a polynomial, na x ny)
• b (coefficients for b polynomial, ny x (nb x nu))
• c (coefficients for output bias, ny)
x = axb(self,A,b,x=None,etype='=',sparse=False)

Create Ax=b, Ax<b, Ax>b, Ax<=b, or Ax>=b models:

Usage: x = m.axb(A,b,etype='=,<,>,<=,>=',sparse=[True,False])

Input:
• A = numpy 2D array or list in dense or sparse form
• b = numpy 1D array or list in dense or sparse form
• x = 1D array of gekko variables (optional). If None on entry then the array is created and returned.
• etype = [‘=’,’<’,’>’,’>=’,’<=’] for equality or inequality form
• sparse = True if data is in sparse form, otherwise dense

sparse matrices are stored in COO form with [row,col,value] with starting index 1 for optional matrix A and in [row,value] for * vector b

Output:
GEKKO variables x
classmethod cspline(x, y, x_data, y_data, bound_x=False)
Generate a 1d cubic spline with continuous first and seconds derivatives from arrays of x and y data which link to GEKKO variables x and y with a constraint that y=f(x).

Inputs:

x: GEKKO variable

y: GEKKO variable

x_data: array of x data

y_data: array of y data that matches x_data

bound_x: boolean to state that x should be bounded at the upper and lower bounds of x_data to avoid extrapolation error of the cspline.

classmethod bspline(self, x, y, z, x_data, y_data, z_data, data=True)

Generate a 2d Bspline with continuous first and seconds derivatives from 1-D arrays of x_data and y_data coordinates (in strictly ascending order) and 2-D z data of size (x.size,y.size). GEKKO variables x, y and z are linked with function z=f(x,y) where the function f is a bspline.

classmethod periodic(v)

Makes the variable argument periodic by adding an equation to constrains v[end] = v. This does not affect the default behavior of fixing initial conditions (v).

y = sum(self,x)

Summation using APM object.:

Usage: y = m.sum(x)

Input:
Numpy array or List of GEKKO variables, parameters, constants, intermediates, or expressions
Output:
GEKKO variable
y = vsum(self,x)

Summation of variable in the data or time direction. This is similar to an integral but only does the summation of all points, not the integral area that considers time intervals.

x = qobj(self,b,A=[],x=None,otype='min',sparse=False)

Create quadratic objective = 0.5 x^T A x + c^T x:

Usage: x = m.qobj(c,Q=[2d array],otype=['min','max'],sparse=[True,False])

Input:
• b = numpy 1D array or list in dense or sparse form
• A = numpy 2D array or list in dense or sparse form
• x = array of gekko variables (optional). If None on entry then the array is created and returned.
• sparse = True if data is in sparse form, otherwise dense

sparse matrices are stored in COO form with [row,col,value] with starting index 1 for optional matrix A and in [row,value] for vector b sparse matrices must have 3 columns

Output:
GEKKO variables x
y,p,K = sysid(self,t,u,y,na=1,nb=1,nk=0,shift='calc',scale=True,diaglevel=0,pred='model',objf=100)

Identification of linear time-invariant models:

y,p,K = sysid(t,u,y,na,nb,shift=0,pred='model',objf=1)

Input:
• t = time data

• u = input data for the regression

• y = output data for the regression

• na = number of output coefficients (default=1)

• nb = number of input coefficients (default=1)

• nk = input delay steps (default=0)

• shift (optional)

‘none’ (no shift) ‘init’ (initial pt), ‘mean’ (mean center) ‘calc’ (calculate c)

• scale (optional)

scale data to between zero to one unless data range is already less than one

• pred (option)

‘model’ for output error regression form, implicit solution. Favors an unbiased model prediction but can require more time to compute, especially for large data sets. ‘meas’ for ARX regression form, explicit solution. Computes the coefficients of the time series model with an explicit solution.

• objf

Objective scaling factor ** when pred=’model’:

minimize objf*(model-meas)**2 + 1e-3 * (a^2 + b^2 + c^2)

** when pred=’meas’:

minimize (model-meas)**2

• diaglevel

display solver output and diagnostics (0-6)

Output:
returns ypred (predicted outputs) p as coefficient dictionary with keys ‘a’,’b’,’c’ K gain matrix

## Internal Methods¶

These are the major methods used internal by GEKKO. They are not intended for external use, but may prove useful for highly customized applications.

static build_model(self)

Write the .apm model file for the executable to read. The .apm file contains all constants, parameters, variables, intermediates, equations and objectives. Single values and/or initializations, along with variable bounds, are passed throught the .apm model file.

static write_csv()

Any array values are passed through the csv, including variable initializations. If imode > 3 then time must be discretized in the csv.

static generate_overrides_dbs_file()

All global and local variable options are listed in the overrides database file.

static load_json()

Reads back global and variable options from the options.json file. Stores output and input/output options to the associated variable.

static load_results()

The executable returns variable value results in a json. This function reads the json and loads the results back into local python variables.

static verify_input_options()

Called when optional solve argument verify_input=True. Compares input options of the model and variables from GEKKO to those reported by APM to find discrepencies.

## Internal Attributes¶

These are GEKKO model attributes used internally. They are not intended for external use, but may prove useful in advanced applications.

server

String representation of the server url where the model is solved. The default is ‘http://xps.apmonitor.com’. This is set by the optional argument server when intializing a model.

remote

Boolean that determines if solutions are offloaded to the server or executed locally.

id
_constants

A python list of pointers to GEKKO Constants attributed to the model.

_parameters

A python list of pointers to GEKKO Parameters, FVs and MVs attributed to the model.

_variables

A python list of pointers to GEKKO Variables, SVs and CVs attributed to the model.

_intermediates

A python list of pointers to GEKKO Intermediate variables attributed to the model.

_inter_equations

A python list of the explicit intermediate equations. The order of this list must match the order of intermediates in the intermediates attribute.

_equations

A python list of equations

_objectives

A python list of objective.

_connections

A python list of connections

csv_status

Set to ‘generated’ if any time, parameter or variable data is communicated through the csv file. Otherwise set to ‘none’.

model_name

The name of the model as a string. Used in local temporary file name and application name for remote solves. This is set by the optional argument name when intializing a model. Default names include the model id attribute to maintain unique names.

_path

The absolute path of the temporary file used to store all input/output files for the APMonitor executable.