Deep Learning¶
GEKKO specializes in a optimization and control. The brain module extends GEKKO with machine learning objects to facilitate the building, fitting, and validation of deep learning methods.
Deep Learning Properties¶
GEKKO specializes in a unique subset of machine learning. However, it can be used for various types of machine learning. This is a module to facilitate Artificial Neural Networks in GEKKO. Most ANN packages use gradient decent optimization. The solvers used in GEKKO use more advanced techniques than gradient decent. However, training neural networks may require extremely large datasets. For these large problems, gradient decent does prove more useful because of the ability to massively parallelize. Nevertheless, training in GEKKO is available for cases where the data set is of moderate size, for combined physicsbased and empirical modeling, or for other predictive modeling and optimization applications that warrant a different solution strategy.

b = brain.Brain(m=[],remote=True,bfgs=True,explicit=True):
Creates a new brain object as a GEKKO model m. Option remote specifies if the problem is solved locally or remotely, bfgs uses only first derivative information with a BFGS update when True and otherwise uses first and second derivatives from automatic differentiation, explicit calculates the layers with Intermediate equations instead of implicit Equations:
from gekko import brain b = brain.Brain()

b.input_layer(size):
Add an input layer to the artificial neural network. The input layer size is equal to the number of features or predictors that are inputs to the network.:
from gekko import brain b = brain.Brain() b.input_layer(1)

b.layer(linear=0,relu=0,tanh=0,gaussian=0,bent=0,leaky=0,ltype='dense'):
Layer types: dense, convolution, pool (mean)
Activation options: none, softmax, relu, tanh, sigmoid, linear:
from gekko import brain b = brain.Brain() b.input_layer(1) b.layer(linear=2) b.layer(tanh=2) b.layer(linear=2)
Each layer of the neural network may include one or multiple types of activation nodes. A typical network structure is to use a linear layer for the first internal and last internal layers with other activation functions in between.

b.output_layer(size,ltype='dense',activation='linear'):
Layer types: dense, convolution, pool (mean)
Activation options: none, softmax, relu, tanh, sigmoid, linear:
from gekko import brain b = brain.Brain() b.input_layer(1) b.layer(linear=2) b.layer(tanh=2) b.layer(linear=2) b.output_layer(1)

b.learn(inputs,outputs,obj=2,gap=0,disp=True):
Make the brain learn by adjusting the network weights to minimize the loss (objective) function. Give inputs as (n)xm, where n = input layer dimensions, m = number of datasets:
from gekko import brain import numpy as np b = brain.Brain() b.input_layer(1) b.layer(linear=2) b.layer(tanh=2) b.layer(linear=2) b.output_layer(1) x = np.linspace(0,2*np.pi) y = np.sin(x) b.learn(x,y)
Give outputs as (n)xm, where n = output layer dimensions, m = number of datasets. Objective can be 1 (l1 norm) or 2 (l2 norm). If obj=1, gap provides a deadband around output matching.

b.shake(percent):
Neural networks are nonconvex. Some stochastic shaking can sometimes help bump the problem to a new region. This function perturbs all weights by +/percent their values.

b.think(inputs):
Predict output based on inputs. The think method is used after the network is trained. The trained parameter weights are used to calculates the new network outputs based on the input values.:
from gekko import brain import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt b = brain.Brain() b.input_layer(1) b.layer(linear=2) b.layer(tanh=2) b.layer(linear=2) b.output_layer(1) x = np.linspace(0,2*np.pi) y = np.sin(x) b.learn(x,y) xp = np.linspace(2*np.pi,4*np.pi,100) yp = b.think(xp) plt.figure() plt.plot(x,y,'bo') plt.plot(xp,yp[0],'r') plt.show()