Chemical Library

GEKKO specializes in a optimization and control. The chemical module extends GEKKO with chemical compounds, thermodynamic properties, and flowsheet objects.

Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic properties form the basis for the flowsheet objects. The thermodynamic properties are also accessible as either temperature independent or temperature dependent quantities.
c = chemical.Properties(m):

Creates a chemical property object with a GEKKO model m.

Chemical properties are defined to specify the chemicals involved in thermodynamic and flowsheet objects.:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
classmethod c.compound(name)

Add chemical compound to model with one of the following:

  1. IUPAC Name (1,2-ethanediol)
  2. Common Name (ethylene glycol)
  3. CAS Number (107-21-1)
  4. Formula (C2H6O2)

Repeated compounds are permitted. All compounds should be declared before thermo objects are created. An error message will occur if the compound is not in the database and a file ‘compounds.txt’ will be created to communicate the available compounds.:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('water')
c.compound('hexane')
prop = c.thermo(name)

Thermodynamic Properties:

# usage: thermo('mw') for constants
# thermo('lvp',T) for temperature dependent
from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
# add compounds
c.compound('water')
c.compound('hexane')
c.compound('heptane')
# molecular weight
mw = c.thermo('mw')
# liquid vapor pressure
T = m.Param(value=310)
vp = c.thermo('lvp',T)
m.solve(disp=False)
print(mw)
print(vp)

Temperature Independent

  • mw = Molecular Weight (kg/kmol)
  • tc = Critical Temperature (K)
  • pc = Critical Pressure (Pa)
  • vc = Critical Volume (m^3/kmol)
  • ccf = Crit Compress Factor (unitless)
  • mp = Melting Point (K)
  • tpt = Triple Pt Temperature (K)
  • tpp = Triple Pt Pressure (Pa)
  • nbp = Normal Boiling Point (K)
  • lmv = Liq Molar Volume (m^3/kmol)
  • ighf = IG Heat of Formation (J/kmol)
  • iggf = IG Gibbs of Formation (J/kmol)
  • igae = IG Absolute Entropy (J/kmol*K)
  • shf = Std Heat of Formation (J/kmol)
  • sgf = Std Gibbs of Formation (J/kmol)
  • sae = Std Absolute Entropy (J/kmol*K)
  • hfmp = Heat Fusion at Melt Pt (J/kmol)
  • snhc = Std Net Heat of Comb (J/kmol)
  • af = Acentric Factor (unitless)
  • rg = Radius of Gyration (m)
  • sp = Solubility Parameter ((J/m^3)^0.5)
  • dm = Dipole Moment (c*m)
  • r = van der Waals Volume (m^3/kmol)
  • q = van der Waals Area (m^2)
  • ri = Refractive Index (unitless)
  • fp = Flash Point (K)
  • lfl = Lower Flammability Limit (K)
  • ufl = Upper Flammability Limit (K)
  • lflt = Lower Flamm Limit Temp (K)
  • uflt = Upper Flamm Limit Temp (K)
  • ait = Auto Ignition Temp (K)

Temperature Dependent

  • sd = Solid Density (kmol/m^3)
  • ld = Liquid Density (kmol/m^3)
  • svp = Solid Vapor Pressure (Pa)
  • lvp = Liquid Vapor Pressure (Pa)
  • hvap = Heat of Vaporization (J/kmol)
  • scp = Solid Heat Capacity (J/kmol*K)
  • lcp = Liquid Heat Capacity (J/kmol*K)
  • igcp = Ideal Gas Heat Capacity (J/kmol*K)
  • svc = Second Virial Coefficient (m^3/kmol)
  • lv = Liquid Viscosity (Pa*s)
  • vv = Vapor Viscosity (Pa*s)
  • sk = Solid Thermal Conductivity (W/m*K)
  • lk = Liq Thermal Conductivity (W/m*K)
  • vk = Vap Thermal Conductivity (W/m*K)
  • st = Surface Tension (N/m)
  • sh = Solid Enthalpy (J/kmol)
  • lh = Liq Enthalpy (J/kmol)
  • vh = Vap Enthalpy (J/kmol)

Flowsheet Objects

Flowsheet objects are created with the chemical library with basic unit operations that mix, separate, react, and model the dynamics of chemical mixtures in processing equipment. The basis for flowsheet objects is:

  • Pressure (Pa)
  • Temperature (K)
  • Mole Fractions
  • Molar Flow (kmol/sec)
  • Moles (kmol)

These fundamental quantities are used to track other derived quantities such as concentration (kmol/m^3), mass (kg), mass flow (kg/sec), enthalpy (J/kmol), heat capacity (J/kmol-K), mass fractions, and many others for mixtures and streams.

f = chemical.Flowsheet(m,[stream_level=1]):
Creates a chemical flowsheet object with a GEKKO model m and a

stream_level.

The stream_level either includes only chemical compositions (stream_level=0) or also pressure and temperature (stream_level=1). Most methods in the Flowsheet object require stream_level=1 but there are a few cases such as blending applications that don’t the additional equations (e.g. energy balance equations to simulate temperature changes.

A code example shows the use of a Flowsheet object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
f.connect(s1,s2):

Connect two objects The first name dictates the properties of the combined object.

Inputs:

  • s1 = object or name of object 1 (string)
  • s2 = object or name of object 2 (string)

A code example shows the use of the connect function:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
mix = f.mixer()
spl = f.splitter()
f.connect(mix.outlet,spl.inlet)
m.solve()
f.set_phase(y,phase='vapor'):

Set the phase (vapor, liquid, solid) of a stream or accumulation.

y = object or name of object (string)

phase = phase of the object (vapor, liquid, solid). A code example demonstrates the set_phase method:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
fl = f.flash()
f.set_phase(fl.inlet,'liquid')
m.solve()
f.reserve(fixed=False):

Create an accumulation that is a quantity (moles) of chemical holdup.

Output: Reserve Object

  • P = Pressure (Pa)
  • T = Temperature (K)
  • n = Molar holdup (kmol)
  • x = Array of mole fractions
  • phase = Phase (solid, liquid, vapor)
  • fixed = Gekko parameter (True) or variable (False) if None or []

A code example demonstrates the creation of a reserve object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
r = f.reserve()
m.solve()
f.stream(fixed=True):

Create a stream that is a flow (moles/sec) of a chemicals

Output: Stream Object

  • P = Pressure (Pa)
  • T = Temperature (K)
  • ndot = Molar flow rate (kmol/sec)
  • x = Array of mole fractions
  • phase = Phase (solid, liquid, vapor)
  • fixed = Gekko parameter (True) or variable (False) if None or []

A code example demonstrates the creation of a stream object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
r = f.stream()
m.solve()
f.flash():

Create a flash object that separates a stream into a liquid and vapor outlet. The flash object does not have a liquid holdup. See flash_column for a flash object with holdup.

Output: Flash object

  • P = Pressure (Pa)
  • T = Temperature (K)
  • Q = Heat input (J/sec)
  • gamma = Activity coefficients for each compound
  • inlet = inlet stream name
  • vapor = vapor outlet stream name
  • liquid = liquid outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a flash object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
fl = f.flash()
m.solve()
f.flash_column():

Create a flash column object that separates a stream into a liquid and vapor outlet. The flash object does not have a liquid holdup. See flash for a flash object without holdup.

Output: Flash column object

  • P = Pressure (Pa)
  • T = Temperature (K)
  • Q = Heat input (J/sec)
  • n = Holdup (kmol)
  • gamma = Activity coefficients for each compound
  • inlet = inlet stream name
  • vapor = vapor outlet stream name
  • liquid = liquid outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a flash_column object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
fl = f.flash()
m.solve()
f.mass(y=None,rn=''):

Create a mass object that calculates the mass (kg) in a mixture holdup.

Inputs:

y = Mass Object (mo)
  • m = mass (kg)

  • mx = mass of components (kg)

  • reserve = ‘’

    rn = Reserve name if already created

Output: Mass object

A code example demonstrates how a mass object is created and linked to a reserve object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
r = f.reserve()
ms = f.mass(rn=r.name)
m.options.solver=1
m.solve()
f.massflow(y=None,sn=''):

Create a mass flow object that calculates the mass flow (kg/sec) in a mixture stream.

Inputs:

y = Mass Flow Object (mo)
  • mdot = mass flow (kg/sec)

  • mx = mass of components (kg)

  • stream = ‘’

    sn = Stream name if already created

Output: Mass flow object

A code example demonstrates how a massflow object is created and linked to a stream object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
s = f.stream()
mf = f.massflow(sn=s.name)
m.options.solver=1
m.solve()
f.massflows(y=None,sn=''):

Create a mass flow object that calculates the mass flow (kg/sec) in a mixture stream.

Inputs:

y = Mass Flow Object (mo)
  • mdot = mass flow (kg/sec)

  • mdoti = mass flow of components (kg)

  • stream = ‘’

    sn = Stream name if already created

Output: Mass flows object

A code example demonstrates how a massflow object is created and linked to a stream object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
s = f.stream()
mf = f.massflows(sn=s.name)
m.options.solver=1
m.solve()
f.mixer(ni=2):

Create a mixer object that combines two or more streams. The mixer object does not have a liquid holdup. See vessel for a mixer object with holdup.

Input:

  • ni = Number of inlets (default=2)

Output: Mixer object

  • inlet = inlet stream names (inlet[1], inlet[2], …, inlet[ni])
  • outlet = outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a mixer object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
mx = f.mixer()
m.options.SOLVER=1
m.solve()
f.molarflows(y=None,sn=''):

Create a molar flows object that calculates the molar flow (kmol/sec) of a mixture stream as well as the molar flow of the individual components.

Inputs:

y = Molar Flows Object (mo)
  • ndot = molar flow (kmol/sec)

  • ndoti = molar flow of components (kmol)

  • stream = ‘’

    sn = Stream name if already created

Output: Mass flows object

A code example demonstrates how a molarflows object is created and linked to a stream object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
s = f.stream()
mf = f.molarflows(sn=s.name)
m.options.solver=1
m.solve()
f.pid():

Create a PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control object that relates the controller output (CO), process variable (PV), and set point (SP) of a control loop. This is a continuous form of a PID controller that approximates discrete PID controllers typically used in industrial practice.

Output: PID object

  • co = Controller Output (u)
  • pv = Process Variable (y)
  • sp = Process Variable Set Point (ysp)
  • Kc = PID Proportional constant
  • tauI = PID Integral constant
  • tauD = PID Derivative constant
  • i = Integral term

Description: PID: Proportional Integral Derivative Controller In the frequency domain the PID controller is described by

U(s) = Kc*Y(s) + Y(s)*Kc/s*tauI + Kc*taud*s*Y(s)

In the time domain the PID controller is described by

u(t) = Kc*(ysp-y(t)) + (Kc/taui)*Integral(t=0…t)(ysp-y(t))dt + Kc*taud*dy(t)/dt

This implementation splits the single equation into two equations The second equation is necessary to avoid the numerical integration. The equations are posed in an open equation form. The integral time

constant is multiplied through to avoid potential divide by zero.

This form may have an advantage over placing the term taui in with the integral equation for cases where taui becomes very small.

0 = -u*taui + Kc*((ysp-y)*taui + Integral + taud*(dy/dt)*taui)

0 = d(Integral)/dt - (ysp-y)

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a pid object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
p = f.pid()
m.solve()
f.pump():

Create a pump object that changes the pressure of a stream.

Output: Pump object

  • dp = change in pressure (Pa)
  • inlet = inlet stream name
  • outlet = outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a pump object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
p = f.pump()
m.solve()
f.reactor(ni=1):

Create a reactor object that combines two or more streams and includes a generation term for each chemical species. The reactor object is similar to the vessel object but includes reactions. The reaction rates are defined as (+) generation and (-) consumption. In addition to the reaction rates, there is a term for heat generation from exothermic reactions (+) or heat removal from endothermic reactions (-).

Input:

  • ni = Number of inlets (default=2)

Output: Reactor object

  • V = Volume (m^3)
  • Q = Heat input (J/sec)
  • Qr = Heat generation by reaction (J/sec)
  • r = Mole generation (kmol/sec)
  • rx = Mole generation by species (kmol/sec)
  • inlet = inlet stream names (inlet[1], inlet[2], …, inlet[ni])
  • reserve = Molar holdup name
  • outlet = Outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a reactor object with two inlet streams:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
r = f.reactor(ni=2)
m.options.SOLVER = 1
m.solve()
f.recovery():

Create a recovery object that splits out components of a stream. This object is commonly used in applications such as separation systems (membranes, filters, fluidized bed production, etc). The last split fraction is calculated as the remainder split amount that sums to a total quantity of one.

Output: Recovery object

  • split = Split fraction to outlet 1 (0-1)
  • inlet = inlet stream name
  • outlet = outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a recovery object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
p = f.recovery()
m.options.SOLVER = 1
m.solve()
f.splitter(no=2):

Create a splitter object that divides a stream into two outlets. This object is used in flowsheeting applications where the stream may be diverted to a different downstream process or a recycle split. The last split fraction is calculated as the remainder split amount that sums to a total quantity of one.

Input:

  • no = Number of outlets

Output: Splitter object

  • split = Split fraction to outlet 1 (0-1)
  • inlet = inlet stream name
  • outlet = outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a splitter object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
p = f.splitter()
m.options.SOLVER = 1
m.solve()
f.stage(opt=2):

Create an equilibrium stage distillation object that has a vapor and liquid inlet, a vapor and liquid outlet, pressure drop, and heat addition or loss rate. The stage object is available either in Index-1 or Index-2 DAE (Differential and Algebraic Equation) form determined by the *opt* parameter. The stage model is one stage (tray, packing height) of a distillation column.

Input:

  • opt = Index-1 (1) or Index-2 (2=default) form

Output: Stage object

  • l_in = Inlet liquid stream
  • l_out = Outlet liquid stream
  • v_in = Inlet vapor stream
  • v_out = Outlet vapor stream
  • q = Heat addition (+) or loss (-) rate
  • dp_in_liq = Pressure drop below stage
  • dp_in_vap = Pressure drop above stage

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a stage object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
s = f.stage(opt=1)
m.options.SOLVER = 1
m.solve()
f.stream_lag():

Create a stream_lag object that approximates first-order blending of a stream that passes through a vessel. The time constant (tau) is approximately the volume divided by the volumetric flow. Molar fractions in the outlet stream are blended inputs.

Output: Stream lag object

  • tau = time constant (sec)
  • inlet = inlet stream name
  • outlet = outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a stream_lag object:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
s = f.stream_lag()
m.solve()
f.vessel(ni=1,mass=False):

Create a vessel object that simulates a container with volume V. The vessel object is similar to the reactor object but does not include reactions. There is a term for heat addition (+) or heat removal (-). The options mass parameter is True if the inlet and outlet are expressed as mass flows instead of molar flows.

Input:

  • ni = Number of inlets (default=1)

Output: Vessel object

  • V = Volume (m^3)
  • Q = Heat input (J/sec)
  • inlet = inlet stream names (inlet[1], inlet[2], …, inlet[ni])
  • reserve = Molar holdup name
  • outlet = Outlet stream name

A code example demonstrates the creation and solution of a vessel object with three inlet streams:

from gekko import GEKKO, chemical
m = GEKKO()
c = chemical.Properties(m)
c.compound('propane')
c.compound('water')
f = chemical.Flowsheet(m)
v = f.vessel(ni=3)
m.options.SOLVER = 1
m.solve()